CentOS7 nginx rtmp/hls配置流媒体服务器

2022-12-28 63点热度 0人点赞 0条评论

说明


本文使用Nginx搭建视频点播服务。也是最简单的一种配置方式。使用在hub.docker.com中的rtmp-hls最新的镜像搭建。
所要达到的目标也非常简单: 将mp4文件通过rtmp协议进行在线播放。

参考地址


https://hub.docker.com/r/alqutami/rtmp-hls
https://github.com/arut/nginx-rtmp-module


使用到的镜像为:当前时间(2020-05-08)

alqutami/rtmp-hls:latest

github地址:https://github.com/TareqAlqutami/rtmp-hls-server

镜像获取


拉取docker镜像的命令如下:

docker pull alqutami/rtmp-hls:latest

获取配置


查看镜像配置信息

sudo docker run -d --name rtmp -p 1935:1935 -p 8080:8080 -v /etc/nginx/rtmp.conf:/etc/nginx/nginx.conf alqutami/rtmp-hls

nginx配置的示例: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/TareqAlqutami/rtmp-hls-server/master/conf/nginx.conf

查看统计信息: http://<server ip>:<server port>/stats.

以下是我的配置nginx.conf示例:

worker_processes  auto;
#error_log  logs/error.log;

events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}

# RTMP configuration
rtmp {
    server {
        listen 1935; # Listen on standard RTMP port
        chunk_size 4000; 
        # ping 30s;
        # notify_method get;

        application vod {
            play /storage/vod;
        }

        # This application is to accept incoming stream
        application live {
            live on; # Allows live input

            # for each received stream, transcode for adaptive streaming
            # This single ffmpeg command takes the input and transforms
            # the source into 4 different streams with different bitrates
            # and qualities. # these settings respect the aspect ratio.
            exec_push  /usr/local/bin/ffmpeg -i rtmp://localhost:1935/$app/$name -async 1 -vsync -1
                        -c:v libx264 -c:a aac -b:v 256k  -b:a 64k  -vf "scale=480:trunc(ow/a/2)*2"  -tune zerolatency -preset superfast -crf 23 -f flv rtmp://localhost:1935/show/$name_low
                        -c:v libx264 -c:a aac -b:v 768k  -b:a 128k -vf "scale=720:trunc(ow/a/2)*2"  -tune zerolatency -preset superfast -crf 23 -f flv rtmp://localhost:1935/show/$name_mid
                        -c:v libx264 -c:a aac -b:v 1024k -b:a 128k -vf "scale=960:trunc(ow/a/2)*2"  -tune zerolatency -preset superfast -crf 23 -f flv rtmp://localhost:1935/show/$name_high
                        -c:v libx264 -c:a aac -b:v 1920k -b:a 128k -vf "scale=1280:trunc(ow/a/2)*2" -tune zerolatency -preset superfast -crf 23 -f flv rtmp://localhost:1935/show/$name_hd720
                        -c copy -f flv rtmp://localhost:1935/show/$name_src;			
            drop_idle_publisher 10s; 
        }

        # This is the HLS application
        application show {
            live on; # Allows live input from above application
            deny play all; # disable consuming the stream from nginx as rtmp
            
            hls on; # Enable HTTP Live Streaming
            hls_fragment 3;
            hls_playlist_length 20;
            hls_path /mnt/hls/;  # hls fragments path
            # Instruct clients to adjust resolution according to bandwidth
            hls_variant _src BANDWIDTH=4096000; # Source bitrate, source resolution
            hls_variant _hd720 BANDWIDTH=2048000; # High bitrate, HD 720p resolution
            hls_variant _high BANDWIDTH=1152000; # High bitrate, higher-than-SD resolution
            hls_variant _mid BANDWIDTH=448000; # Medium bitrate, SD resolution
            hls_variant _low BANDWIDTH=288000; # Low bitrate, sub-SD resolution
            
            # MPEG-DASH
            dash on;
            dash_path /mnt/dash/;  # dash fragments path
            dash_fragment 3;
            dash_playlist_length 20;			
        }
    }
}


http {
    sendfile off;
    tcp_nopush on;
    directio 512;
    # aio on;
    
    # HTTP server required to serve the player and HLS fragments
    server {
        listen 8080;
        
        # Serve HLS fragments
        location /hls {
            types {
                application/vnd.apple.mpegurl m3u8;
                video/mp2t ts;
            }
            
            root /storage/vod;

            add_header Cache-Control no-cache; # Disable cache
            
            # CORS setup
            add_header 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' '*' always;
            add_header 'Access-Control-Expose-Headers' 'Content-Length';
            
            # allow CORS preflight requests
            if ($request_method = 'OPTIONS') {
                add_header 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' '*';
                add_header 'Access-Control-Max-Age' 1728000;
                add_header 'Content-Type' 'text/plain charset=UTF-8';
                add_header 'Content-Length' 0;
                return 204;
            }
        }
        
        # Serve DASH fragments
        location /dash {
            types {
                application/dash+xml mpd;
                video/mp4 mp4;
            }

            root /mnt;
            
            add_header Cache-Control no-cache; # Disable cache


            # CORS setup
            add_header 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' '*' always;
            add_header 'Access-Control-Expose-Headers' 'Content-Length';

            # Allow CORS preflight requests
            if ($request_method = 'OPTIONS') {
                add_header 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' '*';
                add_header 'Access-Control-Max-Age' 1728000;
                add_header 'Content-Type' 'text/plain charset=UTF-8';
                add_header 'Content-Length' 0;
                return 204;
            }
        }		
        
        # This URL provides RTMP statistics in XML
        location /stat {
            rtmp_stat all;
            rtmp_stat_stylesheet stat.xsl; # Use stat.xsl stylesheet 
        }

        location /stat.xsl {
            # XML stylesheet to view RTMP stats.
            root /usr/local/nginx/html;
        }

    }
}

如何映射一个文件夹:

sudo docker run -d --name rtmp -p 1935:1935 -p 8080:8080 -v /etc/nginx/rtmp.conf:/etc/nginx/nginx.conf -v /storage:/storage alqutami/rtmp-hls

我们把abc.mp4放在/storage/vod/abc.mp4下,播放地址就是:

rtmp://127.0.0.1:1935/vod/abc.mp4

http://127.0.0.1:8080/vod/abc.mp4

如果是网页版上播放点播视频,现在很多浏览器已移除了flash(rtmp)的支持

HLS流媒体协议 

HLS(HTTP Live Streaming)自适应码率流媒体传输协议,来自Apple公司,该协议基于Http协议,HLS诞生之初旨在能够从iPhone中删除flash,如今已成为使用最广泛的协议。HLS的优缺点也比较明显。

HLS的优点:
Html5能够直接支持HLS,有浏览器就能播放,不需要安装额外的app,不用考虑防火墙或者代理问题;HLS也支持最新的H.265编解码器,H.265编码的质量要比H.264高很多。
HLS的缺点:
因为HLS基本是采用了点播切片的方式实现的直播,在直播上相对于其它协议有较高的延迟(5~8秒延迟)。

除了HLS协议之外,相关的协议还有RTP/RTCP、RTSP、RTMP、MSS、DASH、HDS、WEBRTC、RIST、SRT等……它们都有各自的优缺点。

HLS的原理:
首先将一个完整音视频分成多个ts格式音视频文件切片,并生成m3u8索引文件,用户下载m3u8索引文件,通过m3u8文件中每段ts切片的索引地址来播放具体的ts切片,在m3u8中可以指定播放相关的参数。

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